The first was delivered to us by Mr. John L. Austin, the second one by Mr. David Hume, the third by Mr. Thomas Hobbes.
You have a donkey and so do I and they graze in the same field. The day comes when I conceive a dislike for mine. I go to shoot it, draw a bead on it, fire: the brute falls in its tracks. I inspect the victim, and find to my horror that it is your donkey. I appear on your doorstep with the remains and say… what? “I say, old sport, I’m awfully sorry, etc. I’ve shot your donkey… by accident? or by mistake?” Then again, I go to shoot my donkey as before, draw a bead on it, fire – but as I do so, the beasts move, and to my horror yours falls. Again the scene on the doorstep – what do I say? “by mistake”? or “by accident”?
Suppose therefore a person to have enjoyed his sight for thirty years, and to have become perfectly well acquainted with colours of all kinds, excepting one particular shade of blue, for instance, which it never has been his fortune to meet with. Let all the different shades of that colour, except a single one, be plac’d before him, descending gradually from the deepest to the lightest; ’tis plain, that he will perceive a blank, where the shade is wanting, and will be sensible, that there is a greater distance in that place betwixt the contiguous colours than in any other. Now I ask, whether ’tis possible for him, from his own imagination, to supply this deficiency, and raise up to himself the idea of that particular shade, tho’ it had never been cnoveyed to him by his senses?
The Ship of Theseus has its parts gradually replaced and the old parts are stored and eventually made into another ship. Which is the original ship?